Glossary

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3DES - See Triple DES/3DES

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AppleTalk - AppleTalk is a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Mac computers. AppleTalk included a number of features that allowed local area networks to be connected with no prior setup or the need for a centralized router or server of any sort.
AVPN - See AT&T Virtual Private Network

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Big Brother - Big Brother (alias BB) is a tool for systems and network monitoring, generally used by system administrators.

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CA.mail - The CA.mail service provides customers with virus protection, spam filtering, data backup and recovery, connectivity to other email systems (including Internet email), and the statewide global address list.
California Email Services (CES) - CES is a vendor hosted solution from Microsoft Online Services which provides a dedicated email environment for the State of California. CES is a cloud computing service in that shared resources, software and information are provided to users' computers and other devices as a utility.
California Government Enterprise Network (CGEN) - CGEN services provides the California State Government WAN connectivity through vendor owned and managed equipment. The vendor manages the Customer's LAN to the vendor's routers in the OTech iHubs. OTech is the owner of record and manages the provisioning of customer connectivity. Customers maintain responsibility for their own local area network (LAN).
California State Government Network (CSGnet) - CSGnet is a diverse statewide network architecture comprised of eleven (11) Point-of-Presence (POP) sites located in metropolitan areas throughout the state. OTech is the owner of record for CSGnet routers and circuits, and is responsible for the management and operation of the statewide network. Access to CSGnet is provided with an access router and access circuit located at a Customer's facility (field office, regional office, Headquarters).
CALNET 2 - CALNET 2 offers State and non-state agencies a comprehensive array of telecommunications services throughout the State of California. Awarded on January 3, 2007, CALNET 2 consists of four Master Service Agreements (MSAs). Each MSA is a five-year contract and contains an option for two one-year extensions.
CES - See California Email Services
CGEN - See California Government Enterprise Network
Cloud Computing - Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
Commercial Off the Shelf - Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) is a Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) term defining a non-developmental item (NDI) of supply that is both commercial and sold in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace, and that can be procured or utilized under government contract in the same precise form as available to the general public.
COTS - See Commercial Off the Shelf
CSGnet - See California State Government Network
Current - A term that refers to the OTech's service life cycle, where the service is not scheduled to be unsupported or discontinued. Customers using a Current service can be in any phase of their project or system life cycle.

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Data Link Switching - Data-Link Switching (DLSw) is a tunneling protocol designed to tunnel unroutable, non-IP based protocols such as IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and NBF over an IP network.
De-militarized Zone (DMZ) - In computer security, a DMZ (sometimes referred to as a perimeter network) is a physical or logical subnetwork that contains and exposes an organization's external-facing services to a larger untrusted network, usually the Internet. The purpose of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to an organization's local area network (LAN); an external attacker only has access to equipment in the DMZ, rather than any other part of the network. The name is derived from the term "demilitarized zone", an area between nation states in which military action is not permitted.
DMZ - See De-militarized Zone

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ECAT - See Exchange Customer Administration Tool
Emerging - A term that refers to the OTech's service life cycle, where the service is within six months of initial availability, but has not reached the maturity of more than six months and is not considered to be a Current OTech service.
Exchange Customer Administration Tool (ECAT) - An Exchange Customer Administration Tool (ECAT) is provided for customer email administrators to add, change and delete mailboxes. New CA.mail customers will receive training for this tool as part of the CA.mail migration process.

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Federal Information Processing Standards 140 (FIPS 140) - The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 140-2, (FIPS PUB 140-2)[1] [2], is a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules. The title is Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. Initial publication was on May 25, 2001 and was last updated December 3, 2002.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.
File Transfer Protocol Secure (FTPS) - FTPS (also known as FTP-ES, FTP-SSL and FTP Secure) is an extension to the commonly used File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that adds support for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols.
FIPS 140 - See Federal Information Processing Standards 140
Firewall - A firewall is software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on a rule set. A network's firewall builds a bridge between the internal network or computer it protects, upon securing that the other network is secure and trusted, usually an external (inter)network, such as the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted.
FOSE - See Microsoft Forefront Online Security for Exchange
FTP - See File Transfer Protocol
FTPS - See File Transfer Protocol Secure
Future - A term that refers to the OTech's service life cycle, where the service is not yet available for Customers. Specific details regarding the service including specifications, administration, rates, and estimated availability are subject to change before the service is available to Customers.

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GLB - See Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLB) - Governs the collection and disclosure of customers' personal financial information by financial institutions. It also applies to companies, regardless of whether they are financial institutions, who receive such information. The Safeguards Rule requires all financial institutions to design, implement and maintain safeguards to protect customer information. The Safeguards Rule applies not only to financial institutions that collect information from their own customers, but also to financial institutions - such as credit reporting agencies, appraisers, and mortgage brokers - that receive customer information from other financial institutions.

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Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) - The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, was signed into law on February 17, 2009, to promote the adoption and meaningful use of health information technology. Subtitle D of the HITECH Act addresses the privacy and security concerns associated with the electronic transmission of health information, in part, through several provisions that strengthen the civil and criminal enforcement of the HIPAA rules.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) - The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996. It was sponsored by Sen. Nancy Kassebaum (R-Kan.).[1] Title I of HIPAA protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. Title II of HIPAA, known as the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers.
HIPAA - See Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HITECH - See Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act
HP Insight Manager (HP SIM) - A proprietary systems management tool designed to help manage HP servers.
HTTPS - See Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a communications protocol for secure communication over a computer network, with especially wide deployment on the Internet. Technically, it is not a protocol in and of itself; rather, it is the result of simply layering the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) on top of the SSL/TLS protocol, thus adding the security capabilities of SSL/TLS to standard HTTP communications.

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IDS - See Intrusion Detection Service
iHub - iHubs are the gateways to servers located at OTech and to the Internet.
InterLATA - InterLATA refers to service between two different Local Access Transport Areas (LATA) and are considered long distance calls. Some states have only one LATA while some have several. An InterLATA call could be to a different LATA within your state or to another state, to another state, or to another country.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 27001 - ISO/IEC 27001, part of the growing ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards, is an information security management system (ISMS) standard published in October 2005 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Its full name is ISO/IEC 27001:2005 - Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements.
International Standards Organization section 17999 - ISO is the developer of International Standards specifying requirements for state-of-the-art products, services, processes, materials and systems. ISO 17999 is focused on controls and practices for information security.
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) - IPX and SPX are networking protocols used primarily on networks using the Novell NetWare operating systems.
Intrusion Detection Service (IDS) - Software that detects attempts or successful attacks on monitored resources that are part of a network or host system.
Intrusion Prevention Service/System (IPS) - Intrusion prevention systems (IPS), also known as intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS), are network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity. The main functions of intrusion prevention systems are to identify malicious activity, log information about this activity, attempt to block/stop it, and report it.
IPS - See Intrusion Prevention Service/System

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LAN - See Local Area Network
Local access and transport area (LATA) - Local access and transport area (LATA) is a term used in U.S. telecommunications regulation. It represents a geographical area of the United States under the terms of the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ) entered by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in Civil Action number 82-0192 or any other geographic area designated as a LATA in the National Exchange Carrier Association, Inc. Tariff FCC No. 4. that precipitated the breakup of the original AT&T into the "Baby Bells" or created since that time for wireline regulation.
Layer 2 (OSI) - The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (ISO/IEC 7498-1) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communications system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Layer 3 (OSI) - The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network), while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer. The network layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer, sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical.
Local Area Network (LAN) - A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.[1] The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

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Microsoft Forefront Online Security for Exchange (FOSE) - Microsoft Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE) is a hosted e-mail security service, owned by Microsoft, that removes spam and viruses from e-mail messages.[1] The service does not require client software installation, but is activated by changing each customer's MX record.[2] Each customer pays for the service by means of a subscription.
Microsoft System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) - System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) is a cross-platform data center management system for operating systems and hypervisors. It uses a single interface that shows state, health and performance information of computer systems. It also provides alerts generated according to some availability, performance, configuration or security situation being identified. It works with Microsoft Windows Server and Unix-based hosts.
MPLS - See Multiple Protocol Label Switching
Multiple Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.

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NetIQ App Manager - NetIQ AppManager® supports a number of applications out of the box with predefined Knowledge Scripts®, including many of the most widely used Windows, Linux and UNIX applications, various hardware and network devices, and Unified Communications and Voice over IP (VoIP) technologies as well as VMware's virtual infrastructure. Module Builder extends monitoring coverage to custom and other off-the-shelf Windows-based applications that are not covered today.

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OpenManage - Dell OpenManage Server Administrator (OMSA) is a software agent that provides a one-to-one systems management solution in two ways: from an integrated, Web browser-based graphical user interface (GUI) and from a command line interface (CLI) through the operating system.

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PIP - See Private Internet Protocol
PowerHA - IBM PowerHA (formerly HACMP) is IBM's solution for high-availability clusters on the AIX Unix and Linux for IBM System p platforms and stands for High Availability Cluster Multiprocessing. IBM's HACMP product was first shipped in 1991 and is now in its 20th release - PowerHA SystemMirror for AIX 7.1
Private Cloud - The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
Private Internet Protocol (PIP) - PIP in telecommunications and datacommunications stands for Private Internet Protocol or Private IP. PIP refers to connectivity into a private extranet network which by its design emulates the functioning of the Internet. Specifically, the Internet uses a routing protocol called border gateway protocol (BGP), as do most multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks. With this design, there is an ambiguity to the route that a packet can take while traversing the network. Wherein the Internet is a public offering, MPLS PIP networks are private. This lends a known, often used, and comfortable network design model for private implementation.
Public Cloud - The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

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Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) - The legislation came into force in 2002 and introduced major changes to the regulation of financial practice and corporate governance. Named after Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Michael Oxley, who were its main architects, it also set a number of deadlines for compliance.
SAS 70 Type II - Statement on Auditing Standards No. 70: Service Organizations, commonly abbreviated as SAS 70 and available in full-text by permission of the AICPA, is an auditing statement issued by the Auditing Standards Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) with its content codified as AU 324. SAS 70 provides guidance to service auditors when assessing the internal control of a service organization and issuing a service auditor’s report. SAS 70 also provides guidance to auditors of financial statements of an entity that uses one or more service organizations. Service organizations are typically entities that provide outsourcing services that impact the control environment of their customers. Examples of service organizations are insurance and medical claims processors, trust companies, hosted data centers, application service providers (ASPs), managed security providers, credit processing organizations and clearinghouses.
SCOM - See Microsoft System Center Operations Manager
Secure Shell (SSH) - Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers that connects, via a secure channel over an insecure network, a server and a client (running SSH server and SSH client programs, respectively).[1] The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions that are referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) - Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide communication security over the Internet.[1] They use asymmetric cryptography for authentication of key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality and message authentication codes for message integrity. Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP).
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982, eventually declared STD 10),[1] and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008)[2] which includes the Extended SMTP (ESMTP) additions, and is the protocol in widespread use today. SMTP uses TCP port 25. The protocol for new submissions (MSA) is effectively the same as SMTP, but it uses port 587 instead. SMTP connections secured by SSL are known by the shorthand SMTPS, though SMTPS is not a protocol in its own right.
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) Relay - An open mail relay is an SMTP server configured in such a way that it allows anyone on the Internet to send e-mail through it, not just mail destined to or originating from known users.[1][2][3] This used to be the default configuration in many mail servers; indeed, it was the way the Internet was initially set up, but open mail relays have become unpopular due to their exploitation by spammers and worms. Many relays were closed, or were placed on blacklists by other servers.
SMTP - See Simple Mail Transport Protocol
SNA - See Systems Network Architecture
SOX - See Sarbanes-Oxley Act
SSH - See Secure Shell
SSL - See Secure Socket Layer
Symantec Endpoint Protection - Symantec Endpoint Protection, developed by Symantec Corporation, is an antivirus and personal firewall product leveled at centrally managed corporate environments security for servers and workstations.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) - Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974.[1] It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources. SNA describes the protocol and is, in itself, not a single piece of software. The implementation of SNA takes the form of various communications packages, most notably Virtual telecommunications access method (VTAM) which is the mainframe package for SNA communications.
Sunset - A term that refers to the OTech's service life cycle, where the service is scheduled to be discontinued. Customers with a system in a Sunset service should have already taken steps to mitigate loss of this service option.

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Tenant Managed Services (TMS) - Tenant Managed Service (TMS) was created by combining two previously known services; the Federated Data Center (FDC) and Customer Owned Equipment Managed (COEMS). TMS will allow our customers the ability to choose which features are needed by their department to meet their specific needs while reducing statewide data center floor space and greenhouse emissions.
TLS - See Transport Layer Security
TMS - See Tenant Managed Services
Transport Layer Security (TLS) - Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide communication security over the Internet.[1] They use asymmetric cryptography for authentication of key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality and message authentication codes for message integrity. Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP).
Triple DES/3DES - In cryptography, Triple DES is the common name for the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA) block cipher, which applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher algorithm three times to each data block.
Twilight - A term that refers to the OTech's service life cycle, where the service is supported, but will likely be discontinued. Customers who use a Twilight service should begin planning for alternative service options.
Two-factor Authentication - Multi-factor authentication (also Two-factor authentication, TFA, T-FA or 2FA) is an approach to authentication which requires the presentation of two or more of the three authentication factors: a knowledge factor ("something the user knows"), a possession factor ("something the user has"), and an inherence factor ("something the user is").

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Virtual Private Network (VPN) - A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if they were an integral part of the private network with all the functionality, security and management policies of the private network.[1] This is done by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination of the two.
VPN - See Virtual Private Network

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WAN - See Wide Area Network
Wide Area Network (WAN) - A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries) using private or public network transports. Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations. In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location. The Internet can be considered a WAN as well, and is used by businesses, governments, organizations, and individuals for almost any purpose imaginable.

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X.509 - A widely used standard for defining digital certificates. X.509 (Version 1) was first issued in 1988 as a part of the ITU X.500 Directory Services standard. When X.509 was revised in 1993, two more fields were added resulting in the Version 2 format. These two additional fields support directory access control. X.509 Version 3 defines the format for certificate extensions used to store additional information regarding the certificate holder and to define certificate usage. Collectively, the term X.509 refers to the latest published version, unless the version number is stated.